Astrophil and Stella, Sonnet 44

My words, I know, do well set forth my mind;
My mind bemoans his sense of inward smart;
Such smart may pity claim of any heart,
Her heart (sweet heart) is of no tiger’s kind:
And yet she hears, yet I no pity find;
But more I cry, less grace she doth impart.
Alas, what cause is there so overthwart,
That nobleness itself makes thus unkind?
I much do guess, yet find no truth save this:
That when the breath of my complaints doth touch
Those dainty doors unto the court of bliss,
The heavenly nature of that place is such
That once come there, the sobs of mine annoys
Are metamorphosed straight to tunes of joys.

I suggest you click here to open the sonnet in a separate window, so that you can refer directly to it as you read on through the analysis.

The auxesis of the opening quatrain closely echoes the opening of the entire sequence in Sonnet 1:

Loving in truth, and fain in verse my love to show,
That she (dear she) might take some pleasure of my pain,
Pleasure might cause her read, reading might make her know;
Knowledge might pity win, and pity grace obtain;

But this hopeful aspiration has already over-shot reality, as the fifth and sixth lines of the present sonnet make certain:

And yet she hears, yet I no pity find;
But more I cry, less grace she doth impart.

The enterprise is not going well! And the very center of this sonnet, lines 7-8, poses the question of how this could be; what “overthwart” (literally, lying crosswise across; so figuratively, perverse or contrary to reason) cause could make such a noble mind (Stella) so oblivious to the speaker’s suffering, so incapable of pity or grace?

The sestet makes a very tentative and metaphorical stab at an explanation, and this explanation is, like the problem itself, a paradox, stretched out over the last five lines, since this is one of the very small number of Sidney sonnets without a full stop after line 11. Stella’s divinity (or “heavenly nature”) is of such a kind that it can instantly convert, or metamorphose, “sobs” of pain (“mine annoys”) to “tunes of joys.”* High praise, on the one hand, befitting a god—but, at the same time, a god who is coldly indifferent to the suffering of worshippers! The final couplet could be read as a veiled dig at the sadistic joy (as the speaker sees it) that Stella takes in making a lover miserable.

* On line 11, cf. Sonnet 9 for Stella as a “court,” not of bliss, but of virtue. Presumably here the metaphorical “doors” are her ears, not her mouth, as there.

Next time (weekend of March 21): Sonnet 45
Jonathan Smith is Professor of English at Hanover College, Hanover, Indiana.

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